John Stuart Mill in 19th Century Philosophy. Knowledge of Language in Philosophy of Language. The Basis of Meaning in Philosophy of Language. Edit this record. Mark as duplicate.
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Andrew Bowie ed. Philosophy: Key Texts. Names are referential expressions. An elementary proposition represents the referents of its names as combined with one another in the same way in which the names are combined in the proposition. The proposition is true if the referents are so combined; false if they are not. The referents of names are simple items known as objects. The combinations of objects that elementary propositions represent as obtaining are known as states of affairs Sachverhalte.
The third component of TARR is an account of the structure of reality, according to which a possible state of the world is constituted by the states of affairs that obtain in it. Two states of the world differ from one another only if there are states of affairs that obtain in one and not in the other. And for every set of states of affairs there is a possible state of the world in which the states of affairs that obtain are precisely the elements of the set.
Thus, according to TARR, elementary propositions and states of affairs provide the interface between language and the world. Propositions represent the world by their truth-functional dependence on elementary propositions. These, in turn, represent states of affairs. This enables propositions to represent the whole of reality, since everything that is the case, and everything that can be the case, consists in the obtaining and non-obtaining of states of affairs—what truth functions of elementary propositions represent. Taken as an intuitive model, TARR is fairly easy to understand—we can form a conception of what things would have to be like in order for TARR to be correct.
A precise, literal understanding of the view is much harder to achieve. And it is even harder to grasp why anyone would think that this is how things are in actuality—that language and reality have the structure that TARR attributes to them and that the former represents the latter as TARR says it does. Specifically, it is hard to understand why Wittgenstein thought this. Addressing these questions is the main goal of this course. There are two main English translations of the Tractatus, one by by C.
I tend to use the Pears and McGuinness, but although they differ in important respects, either would be fine. I have prepared a hypertext version of the Pears and McGuinness translation. It doesn't work on some browsers. If you know any German, there is a very useful edition by Joachim Schulte and Brian McGuinness Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, , collating sections of the Tractatus with relevant passages from preliminary manuscripts. Another important primary source is Wittgenstein's Notebooks, Oxford: Blackwell, 2nd ed.
This volume contains the main extant manuscripts from the period when Wittgenstein was working on the Tractatus. We will be paying close attention to the origin of Wittgenstein's ideas in the work of Russell and Frege. We will be looking mainly at the following texts:. Geach, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, Chapter 4 of The Principles of Mathematics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, London: Longmans, Green, Chapter 12 of The Problems of Philosophy.
The fourth lecture of The Philosophy of Logical Atomism. LaSalle, Ill. There are many book-length expositions and commentaries of the Tractatus. Many of them make some good points but they all differ in important respects from the interpretation that I'll be presenting. The following might be particularly useful:. Max Black. A Companion to Wittgenstein's Tractatus. Ithaca, N. James Griffin. Wittgenstein's Logical Atomism.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, David Pears. Volume I. Oxford: Clarendon Press, I will recommend readings on particular topics in the lectures, but here is an unsystematic selection of interesting articles on the issues that we will be discussing:. Candlish, Stewart. Bristol: Thoemmes Press, Conant, James. London: Routledge, Carnap and Early Wittgenstein. Stidd, Oxford: Clarendon, Geach, Peter T.
Griffin, Nicholas. Hylton, Peter. Schneewind and Quentin Skinner, Russell, Idealism, and the Emergence of Analytic Philosophy. Kremer, Michael. Linsky, Leonard. Palmer, Anthony. Chapter 4. Pears, David. Proops, Ian. Sluga, Hans. Sommerville, Stephen. Vienna: Holder-Pichler-Tempsky, The module focuses on Aristotle's philosophy of mind and moral psychology. After a brief introduction in the first week to the central tenets of his metaphysics and epistemology, the module will cover topics including Aristotle's views human nature and human flourishing, the kinds of cognitive capacities attributable to humans and non-human animals, the emotions, virtue ethics, the doctrine of the mean and learning to be good, weakness of the will, and the role of contemplation in the good life.
The central primary texts will be de Anima and the Nicomachean Ethics, although other texts will be consulted. They will develop the ability to evaluate the arguments proposed in the sources and to propose and assess different possible interpretations. They will be encouraged to reflect critically on the significance of the material. A sample syllabi, with the relevant primary texts, is as follows:.
Primary Text: Nicomachean Ethics, book I especially chapters , , Primary Text: Nicomachean Ethics, I. Broad offers a comparative phenomenology of vision, audition, and touch highlighting the important differences between them. The class will be conducted as a seminar with student presentations. For relatively recent analytic discussion of these issues, the student might consult the optional reading Perception and Its Modalities edited by Dustin Stokes, Mohan Matthen, and Stephen Biggs.
Oxford University Press, This module will focus on philosophy of emotion. We will critically examine the leading theories of emotion found in contemporary philosophy of mind. According to "feeling" theories, emotions are a distinctive kind of felt sensation. According to "judgment" theories, they are a kind of evaluative belief.
According "perceptualist" theories, emotions are a kind of perception, akin to visual experience. According to "non-reductivist" theories, the emotions cannot fruitfully be understood in terms of other pre-existing categories in the philosophy of mind, but must be understood in their own right. To what extent can each of these the capture the nature of emotions and the role they play in our mental lives?
We will also discuss further issues: do the emotions form a natural kind? What representational content do emotions have? How do emotions relate to values? How do they relate to the body? This optional course will be taught in seminar format, with one weekly two-hour meeting. It is designed to introduce students to some central questions in political and moral philosophy. The topic of the course is the politics of sex.
It focuses on general ethical concerns raised by state regulation of intimate relations e. Should some things not be for sale? Is consent the key to legitimate interaction? Are there circumstances in which paternalism is permissible or even required? This course is intended for students with a range of specializations, but some background knowledge in philosophy normally a minimum of two philosophy courses passed before taking this module. The course is not suitable for conversion students. This is an advanced undergraduate course covering topics in analytic philosophy of religion.
We will be focusing on three topics. Gasser ed Personal Identity and Resurrection.
Assessment: Unseen two-hour written examination. The course focuses on central issues in the writings of the German Idealists — Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel — with special attention to the ways in which they develop and transform Kant's philosophy. Topics covered include the theory of the self, transcendental and absolute idealism, philosophy of nature, the Hegelian dialectic. In this course, we will cover three central topics in the metaphysics of science: causation, chance and the laws of nature. Questions to be addressed include: What are laws of nature?
Are there laws in sciences such as biology, ecology, or economics? If so, how do they relate to the laws of physics? What is objective chance?
Do only fundamental physical laws for example, those of quantum mechanics generate chances, or do the laws or generalizations of biology, etc. What is causation? How does causation relate to chance? No background in science or probability theory is needed for this course. In his Philosophical Papers, Vol.
Postscript E: 'Redundant Causation'. Collins, N. Hall, and L. Paul eds.
Philosophy of Linguistics
Topic 6. Cambridge: CUP , pp. Feigl et al. Topic The course examines issues in aesthetics and the philosophy of art in classical German philosophy. Topics covered include: Kant's account of judgements of taste and his theory of art; Schiller's aesthetic solution to the problem of Freedom and Nature in his Letters on Aesthetic Education; aesthetic absolutism in Schelling and the early German Romantics; Hegel's system of art and thesis of the 'end' of art. The two-hour class combines a lecture with discussion of the set text. This module investigates two complementary topics: 1 theories of autonomy, as they have been developed by philosophers writing about ethics and the self, and 2 defences of free speech, as they have been developed and criticised by legal and political theorists.
The insights into the nature of autonomy that we gain from thinking about the topics in part 1 , will inform the critical inquiry that we carry out in part 2. Classes are a mixture of lectures, small-group discussion, and whole group discussion. Metaethics involves questions about the nature of value and of our thought and language about it. In this course students will learn about prominent metaethical theories, and important arguments for and against them.
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Exact content will change from year to year, but typical topics include: the nature of moral properties, the objectivity of moral truth, how ethical language and thought works, and how we can know about what's right and wrong. The International Encyclopedia for Ethics, ed. Hugh LaFollette, is a great resource for short introductory articles to topics.
You could start by reading the article on metaethics, written by Jonas Olson. Other good articles include those on moral naturalism, non-naturalism, non-cognitivism, quasi-realism, and error theory. Other good texts include the following collections of essays which cover many topics including those relevant to our course, such as naturalism, non-naturalism, error-theory, expressivism, and moral epistemology.
Any handful of the suggested chapters will be useful:. Geoffrey Sayre-McCord, ed. Copp, David, ed. The Oxford Handbook of Ethical Theory. LaFollette, Hugh, ed. The Blackwell Guide to Ethical Theory. Oxford: Blackwell, Russ Shafer-Landau, ed. Oxford Studies in Metaethics several volumes available, all contain relevant material.
You are strongly recommended to take this course only if you have previously studied philosophy of language, metaphysics, or logic. If you're not sure whether you have the appropriate background please feel free to contact the module leader. In this module we will investigate the relationship between the world and our representation of it by our language and thoughts. We will study a number of philosophical debates from the last century, which all center on the idea that our theories about human language and thought will in some way affect what we think about reality.
Topics studied will vary from year to year, but typical topics include how we can think and talk about the non-existent, the role of reference and representation in deciding what the world is like, whether we can dissolve metaphysical problems by thinking about ordinary language, and whether any kind of language can mirror reality.
Some texts to give students a flavour of some potential topics: All are available online. The text varies year by year. This year we shall be reading Iris Murdoch's Sovereignty of the Good. This is a relatively new module in the Department, designed to be innovative in terms of the learning tasks and assessment. Essentially, students will be required to work in teams to produce a joint report on a pressing moral or political issue.
In effect each group will act as a mini think-tank, and will experience the pleasures and frustrations of group work, in contrast to the normal individual work of Philosophy. Students will collectively decide on their research topic, and will have some level of autonomy over the team in, and topic on, which they work, although it is essential that everyone is assigned to a team. The required report will be up to 10, words, to be delivered at the end of term, and could be on topics such as climate change, regulation of social media, single sex marriage, regulations of drugs, funding of reproductive medicine, freedoms of the press etc looking at empirical and policy literature as well as at philosophical arguments.
In addition to the collective report, students will, individually, be asked to produce an individual discussion of one philosophical idea related to the report words and to write a short essay reflecting on the process of producing the report and their own place in it words. The first week or two will discuss general methodology, topics and procedure, assigning people to teams and topics. Subsequent sessions will discuss progress on the report and next steps for each group, but the precise form they take will be dependent on the level of progress achieved and what the groups would find most helpful.
There are many publically available reports that students can consult including:. Our strength of beliefs influence our decision making. But how should we measure strength of belief, and what rational constraints are there on one's strength of belief? How should one's strengths of belief change in response to evidence?
And how exactly ought one's strength of beliefs feed through into rational decision making? These are the central questions that will be tackled in this module, where students will be introduced to the probabilistic representation of strength of belief, arguments for the rationality of probabilistic degrees of belief, arguments for various rational constraints on those beliefs - including constraints concerning belief updates in response to evidence - and to decision theory.
Formal epistemology is an increasingly important area of philosophy, and its influence on other areas of philosophy traditional epistemology, philosophy of mind, philosophy of action, metaphysics, ethics, and political philosophy has been profound. The field is also strongly interdisciplinary, with cross-overs into economics, statistics, computer science, and political science.
Bradley, D. Fenton-Glynn, L.
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Nozick, R. Rescher et al. Essays in Honor of Carl G. Hempel Dordrecht: Reidel. We will explore theories of responsibility, in particular their explanations of its grounds, its scope and its limits. We will also discuss some fundamental skeptical challenges to the practice of holding ourselves and others responsible. In light of these general considerations, we will then examine more specific topics, such as responsibility for attitudes, moral luck, blameworthiness, excuses and collective responsibility.
The aim of the module is to develop an understanding of the nature of responsibility, and the resources and problems of contemporary approaches. Investigation of a familiar and puzzling elements of moral life, e. Topics and texts may differ year to year. For more information please email d. The dissertation module is an optional module that can only be taken in your final year of study.
Enrolment requires approval by the Departmental Tutor. The dissertation is a 8,word essay on a philosophical topic of your choosing, subject to the availability of a member of staff with appropriate expertise to supervise it, and approval by the Departmental Tutor. Tuition involves four one-hour sessions of one-on-one supervision by a member of staff.
The research will be self-directed, though with the guidance of your supervisor. The dissertation submission deadline is 1st day of 3rd term by 4. Module Aims: To provide students with an understanding of an area of current philosophical research and to offer them the opportunity of engaging in the methodology of philosophical research practiced in leading research universities in the world. The student should gain experience of the method of study and instruction expected of a graduate student in the first years of a research degree.
Intended Learning Outcomes: The student will produce a significant piece of writing in the relevant research area.
They will gain an understanding of research methods in philosophy. Tuition: Students will attend all seminars for the module that they select.
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In recognition of the fact that graduate-level courses are more demanding than undergraduate courses, undergraduates taking the Guided Research Module GRM will receive additional support in the form of three tutorials i. Assessment: Students will complete a summative essay of the same length as the graduate students 4, words due for submission on the first day of the term following the term in which the module is taken.
Eligibility and Selection: To be eligible for the GRM students must have a weighted average of at least 65 in the modules they have taken in their first and second year modules taken in the second year are weighted three times as heavily as first year modules. A maximum of two undergraduate students may take each of the modules listed above this may be fewer if the module is oversubscribed, since graduate students will be given priority.
This module is designed to allow students to build on their introductory tutorial module. Students will discuss a variety of central philosophical texts on fundamental topics in a broad area of their choice. The module will allow them to enhance their skills in philosophical discussion, oral presentation and essay writing.
Students will be placed in tutorial groups of two to four students, ensuring that everyone has a chance to participate in debate, and to receive feedback on their oral presentations and written work during the course. The texts studied will be selected by the course tutor in consultation with the module convenor. Students enrolled in the 3rd Year Tutorial Module, are asked to nominate their top two preferences for the kind of philosophy to be studied in the module, either Theoretical Philosophy A , Practical Philosophy B , or Historical Philosophy C.
The Department will endeavour to allocate students to one of their top two preferences, wherever possible. Students will be allocated to an instructor a Postgraduate Teaching Assistant , and in the first week of class or possibly in the week before , will be given a syllabus and reading list.
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